In most cases, digging is required to lay pipes or pour foundations. The effort involved in excavation depends heavily on the soil conditions and trench depth. The delimitation to a hole results from the rectangular shape of the base. Several holes can become a ditch.
Hard, soft and hydrous soil
When digging a trench, the amount of work and the need for tools and aids depend on the soil conditions. Loose surfaces require less tools, but more extensive support structures for support and attachment. Hard, heavily compacted and loamy soils can often only be worked with great effort by strong machines.
A special case are trenches that are driven into very water-rich soil or reach the groundwater through their depth. In these cases, additional pumping and dewatering methods often have to be used. In all cases a site security is indispensable and mandatory. It is also necessary to plan the storage of the excavated material and, if necessary, the reuse during refilling after the laying of pipes or cables.
Parting off and fastening
A spade and a shovel are often sufficient for digging a trench by hand, for example to make room for drainage. The trench is tapped at the edges and the soil is shoveled within the column. If the soil is very loose, pre-compaction by tamping can make the job easier.
If the cut-out edges do not stop and "drizzle" immediately, auxiliary casings must be introduced into the soil. For smaller trench projects on private land, wooden planks may be sufficient. For a larger and deeper trench, professional wood or metal formwork posts are required.
Protection and protection
The digging of a trench is individually adapted to the circumstances. Watering the soil can make it more stable or softer. For hard soils, a kind of row of holes can form the basis for the excavation. With drilling tools several holes are juxtaposed and then expanded and connected.
Unconditional and indispensable measures when digging a trench are:
- Immediate attachment, if necessary with cross bracing
- Secured to the outside by barriers and warning signs
- Protective cover against precipitation
- Store the excavation in such a way that wind and precipitation do not flush it back in