The timber frame construction, which is so modern today, is actually a very old technology and has been modified from half-timbered construction. This construction offers some advantages over a massive house, because it is often better insulated and cheaper.
Stable skeleton supports the building
In the timber frame construction method, a framework of beams and slats is joined together, which is later covered or sealed in different ways from both sides. Between the inner shell and the outer skin is enough space to bring in a very good and powerful insulation. Read more about the wall construction in this article.
Variants of the wooden stand construction
There are countless variants that also depend on the region in which it is built. For example, the form of wooden stand construction often used in the USA is much lighter and more filigree than the design we use extensively.
In Germany and Europe, the building regulations require a significantly stronger and more stable construction method for timber frame construction. Nevertheless, one is very free in the design of the interiors, because there are basically no load-bearing walls, but the framework of the house, like a skeleton that supports and stabilizes the building.
Despite the high stability, the interior walls require less space for the wooden stand construction, as they are usually slimmer. So precious living space is not wasted by unnecessarily thick walls. In addition, walls can be moved easily and the interior layout remains flexible even in later years.
short overview of the different variants
- stand construction with clinker cover
- stand construction with mineral plaster
- stand construction with wood cladding
- pure timber frame construction
stand construction with clinker cover
Many home builders clink up their new wooden frame built houses. So the house later looks like a massive house and visually no difference is recognizable. Similar to most variants of the wooden stand construction, the insulation is particularly good here.
Stand construction with mineral plaster
Developers who want to cover their house later with mineral plaster, usually have the claim to build a low energy house or even an energy neutral house. This is achieved by a cladding with thermal insulation elements, which are plastered later good.
These houses basically have two layers of insulation. One is, as with other wooden stud houses, also inserted between the framework of beams. The other is also provided as an outer shell. Similar to the cladding made of clinker material, this design is very energy efficient.
However, care should be taken during ventilation. These houses may breathe worse than houses made entirely of wood, and the wood in the walls is more prone to mold. Therefore, attention must be paid to an exact sealing of the vapor barrier and the house should have an automatically controlled ventilation system.
Wooden house or wooden cladding
Of course, wooden skins are usually made of external casings, which are also made of wood. However, there are also different variants here. There are the houses known from Sweden and the Scandinavian countries, which stand out not only by their red wood color, but by the differently wide vertical boards of their outer shell.
Here, first of all, wide boards are nailed or screwed onto the undercarriage, each of which sits at a small distance from each other. In each case a narrow board is placed on these gaps. But also tongue and groove joints are very common in the Nordic region.
However, the Swedish houses built here today are mostly covered in a transverse plane. Variants are also there as many, it should only be taken to ensure that the wooden shell is well ventilated and no water can accumulate on the boards.
Half-timbered construction - original and new
Originally a framework of beams was filled with red bricks. Either a masonry wall layer was put in or the house was not insulated at all. Of course, this is not only a waste of energy today, but also not allowed when new is built.
Today's half-timbered buildings are also provided with a timber framework from the outside, which was bricked with stones. But then comes at least one layer of air and a layer of insulation before the inner wall is made of the different materials.
A half-timbered building looks very noble and valuable today, especially in rural areas. But the cost of this design are much higher than for a normal construction in wooden stand construction.
Advantages - in short
- Renewable material as building material
- If desired: Renewable and natural insulation materials possible
- Good energy efficiency - minimum heating costs
- New construction is built faster, as no drying times occur
- Walls take up less space
- Flexibility in conversions due to the lack of load-bearing Walls
- High proportion of prefabrication possible far away from the construction site
Quality of wood important aspect
Since a house built in timber frame construction is mainly made of wood, the quality of the wood is decisive for the durability of the building. Especially the drying of the building material is an important factor for longevity.
Anyone who saves on the choice of material will often enjoy their house, which was built in wooden stand construction, not too long enjoyment. The beams for the skeleton of the house must be well and extensively dried before being processed.
If the wood is still damp, it can quickly mold behind the applied vapor barrier. So the wood in the walls would be an extreme health risk. A mold-infested wooden house would then only be hazardous waste.
The next problem with insufficient drying is the subsequent shrinkage of the wood and also the formation of large cracks in the wood. This affects the statics of the house sustainable and worst, it can even collapse in such shortcomings.
Where the wood is exposed to the weather, it must be well treated with wood preservation. The wood is and will remain the most important aspect of this construction and should therefore be protected to maintain stability.
Insulation for timber stand construction
As the wooden stand construction usually has a distance of 62.5 centimeters between the supports or uprights, not only the plasterboard or OSB boards can be installed perfectly without large waste, but also the thermal insulation.
The insulation is usually inserted between the beams and protected against moisture with a vapor barrier. Those who pay particular attention to sustainability should pay attention to a hemp or mineral fiber when insulating their wooden house.
Even though a building is much lighter and quicker to build in timber frame construction, it is usually the same or better insulated than a solidly built house. So here you have no disadvantages.
Differentiation from timber panel construction and prefabricated house construction
For prefabricated house construction, wooden panel construction is frequently used. In wood panel construction is also prefabricated, while the individual walls are known as panels. Most of the timber-walled walls are a bit lighter and thinner than buildings constructed using traditional wood-frame construction.
Thanks to prefabricated house construction, the wooden stand construction has become so popular again in the first place. Usually, the walls are prefabricated in the factory and simply put together on the construction site in just a few steps.
In some prefabricated houses, however, the insulation is introduced into the wall panels only after assembly, before they are then planked. This is usually the case with expansion houses. If the house was not offered on a turnkey basis, the client then carries out the interior work including the insulation.
Disadvantages of the wooden stand construction
Although most houses, which are built in Holzständerbauweise, in case of fire even better behavior than massive houses, the fire insurance but a little more expensive in the contribution. The massive beams that carry the skeleton of the house char from the outside very slowly in a fire, causing the house does not collapse so quickly.
You can not build skyscrapers with the wooden stand construction method. In the meantime, six-storey buildings are permitted in most federal states, but this is the exception rather than the rule.
Disadvantages - briefly summarized
- room size should be adapted to the grid of 62.5 centimeters, otherwise higher costs
- building insurance costs slightly higher contributions
- wood protection against mold and insects required