The cellar is in the German-speaking countries with most old, - existing and new buildings an absolute matter of course. However, it is also normal for many people to immediately associate a cellar with humidity. The professional and highly efficient basement waterproofing was technically simply not feasible for many decades. Today, a dry cellar is normality - thanks to the cellar design of the white tub.
The result is soil moisture and thus wet basements
The soil acts like a sponge. It stores water in the form of soil moisture. At the same time, however, new water always flows in as seepage water through rain and snowmelt into the ground. There it meets our most important drinking water reservoir, the groundwater. Accordingly, the following terms play a key role in the Kellerbau.
- Soil moisture
The water in the soil - a complex interplay
However, it is not the case that the groundwater could be found from a depth of, for example, 20 meters and the leachate flows there in no time at all. Rather, the groundwater is found in many regions in much lesser depth.
In addition, groundwater levels continue to rise due to a variety of reasons. In addition, there are various soil compositions that drain leachate quickly, less quickly or only very timidly.
The basement construction is based on the local conditions
Leachate can thus have jamming or non-jamming properties, while the groundwater can also be pressurized water, thus pressing against the basement walls. This can be the case on a long-term basis, in the case of a normal downpour but after extreme weather peaks.
From this complex interaction of groundwater, leachate, stratum water (poorly drained seepage water), soil consistency and climatic conditions arise regionally and even very locally very different conditions in the Kellerbau.
From the tar seal to the white pan
According to these requirements, different sealed cellars are distinguished.
- black tub
- white tub
- brown tub
The black tub
The black tub is almost the first reasonably successful attempt of cellar sealing, but which was subject to a strong temporal limitation. The lateral sealing with tar today became a complex basement seal with high-quality coated bitumen, a perimeter insulation, drainage systems and a backfilling with good seepage properties around the building.
The structure of the cellar is still quite simple with the black tub.
- concrete floor slab
- masonry basement walls
The white bath
Although the structure of the white bath is similar, it is completely different. Thus, the white tub can be described as a monolithic construct made of one piece. Seals and concrete parts form a unit. A special feature is the use of WU concrete, of waterproof concrete. Below is the life span of various cellar waterproofing to gain a sense of the high quality of the white tub.
- tar coating without protection against mechanical influences and water: 20 to a maximum of 30 years
- black bitumen-based tub (including perimeter insulation, etc.): 40 to 50 years
- white tub (correctly designed): 40 to 80 years
A white tub is demanding
The addition "properly constructed" was not accidentally inserted by us. The background to this is the complex calculations as well as the demanding work involved in creating a white bath. First, an opinion of the soil must be created. On the basis of this opinion, concrete thicknesses, reinforcements and their location, additives for the concrete etc. are calculated.
Calculation and construction
The mixture of the concrete must then be as accurate during construction as the prescribed type of positioning of reinforcements (structural steels), concrete additives or even the compacting of the concrete. Although it is a mature technology with first-class products, many mistakes are still made in the execution of white tubs.
The white tub - Kellerabdichtung in perfection
The state of the art today is even so far that all basements should be built independent of the soil properties as a white tub. But many construction companies traditionally prefer the black tub. Even with the prices, the differences are only minor. Accordingly, you should consider in your construction also a white tub as a cellar.
You must make sure that you have a decision for each white bath
However, you should then in any case commission an independent building supervisor, both from the executing company and the invoicing office, to ensure the correct execution of the white bath. This is the only way to ensure that the white tub actually meets your local requirements and is really built that way. The bottom line is that it saves you an enormous amount of money. Keine no more damp basements during lifetime
- Construction only slightly more expensive than black baths with significantly lower follow-up costs
- more efficient insulation properties
- value enhancement and value retention
- tips & tricksIn addition, you should keep in mind that in Germany, an increase in groundwater levels can be observed. Even if your construction company thinks they do not even have layered water, the whole situation can change dramatically within a few years. On the one hand less groundwater is taken than in the past. On the other hand, in many regions the drainage water can no longer be discharged into the drains, but must instead be supplied to the groundwater - for each individual house in more and more municipalities and Städte.Im in the house journal we discuss for you, of course, the black tub whose Special features, development, advantages and disadvantages.