The base plate - the foundation for all non-basement houses - can be made in different ways - but in most cases it is cast from concrete. An additional insulation of the concrete slab is advisable to prevent heat loss to the surrounding soil. Here you will learn the steps in which a classic, continuous floor slab is made.
Every house that does not have a basement needs a load-bearing foundation that dissipates the resulting forces into the ground through the construction and thus stabilizes the building. In frost-prone soils such foundations must then be additionally secured by the construction of a so-called frost apron against damage from ground frost.
A floor slab can be constructed either as a continuous floor slab, as a strip foundation or as a point foundation. Point and strip foundations are more complex to produce and usually more expensive. Every foundation slab should now also be insulated with insulation boards that are at least 80 millimeters thick.
Possible alternatives to the classic concrete floor slab
Nowadays solid wood prefabricated elements, which can be used in the same way for floor slabs, are also available as alternative foundations to the classic floor slab made of cast concrete. They have a very good natural thermal insulation, which is about 20 times better than concrete. Also thermocouples for the floor slab with integrated insulation and underfloor heating are an alternative, they are about half the cost of conventional continuous concrete foundation slabs.
Step by step instructions for a continuous foundation plate with frost apron
- Ready-mixed concrete (supplied)
- Gravel for cleanliness layer
- Reinforcement mats
- Reinforcement profiles
- Shoring boards, alternatively boards
- Construction plans
- Grounding irons
- Teaching pipes
- Mini excavators
- Aluminum profile or slat
- Spirit level
- Vibratory plate for Compacting
- Electric vibrator
1. Preparation of the substrate
Before the floor slab is finished, the substrate must first be prepared and the topsoil removed first. In the pit, a clean layer is first applied.
The cleanliness layer consists of a gravel bed, which is compacted with the vibrating plate. All necessary connections are now laid over the teaching tubes on the cleanliness layer. Anlegen 2. Applying the frost apron
A trench about 40 cm wide and about 80 cm deep is dug around the bottom plate with the mini-bearing. The earthing strap for power and water supply earthing is laid in the trench. This trench is then filled with concrete, depending on the soil condition and reinforcement cages must be in, which are then connected to the reinforcing bars of the bottom plate. Schal 3. Formwork and laying of the reinforcement for the floor slab
The surrounding shuttering formwork is now attached and fixed, nailed to the corner joints. If rigid foam formwork elements are used for a permanent formwork, which then remains later in the structure, these elements must be secured with pegs and glued at the corners.
After aligning and fixing the shuttering boards or formwork elements with the spirit level, the reinforcement mats must still be laid and connected with each other and with the reinforcement baskets of the frost apron. The reinforcement grids must be surrounded on all sides by three centimeters of concrete, with spacers made of plastic. G 4. Pouring the base plate and drying
After the formwork has been installed, the frost apron and the base plate are poured out with the supplied ready-mixed concrete in the required thickness - usually around 20 cm - compacted with the electric vibrator and smoothed out with the aluminum bat.
After casting, the base plate must dry for about 28 days, protected by a blueprint for either frost or too fast drying (cracking) with an attached blueprint. Irrigation of the concrete is required only on very hot days.