Electric heaters are generally considered very unecological - and also very expensive. Both are only partially true. How ecological is the heating with electricity, and under what circumstances it can be very ecological, read in this post.
Electricity as a form of energy for heating
Electricity is a very common source of energy that is available virtually everywhere. Heating with electricity is therefore still widespread.
Electricity heaters are considered comparatively less efficient, but also extremely expensive. For many older technologies, such as night storage heaters, this may also apply - they transform vast amounts of expensive electricity into comparatively little heat.
In contrast, modern technologies, such as infrared radiant heaters, are far more efficient than many forms of heating that use fossil fuels. After all, an infrared heater in energy consumption is almost 2.5 times more efficient than a modern gas heating system, as a study by the TU Kaiserslautern several years ago proved.
In terms of heating costs, this higher efficiency is not noticeable simply because the price of one kilowatt hour of electricity is more than three times as high as the price of one kilowatt hour of gas. But that's politics and not technology that causes it.
Problems of power generation
If electricity for heating were used more widely than is currently the case, the so-called base load would in any case massively increase. The base load is the amount of electricity that the power plants constantly have to provide, as well as so-called peak currents occur at certain times.
However, increasing the base load poses major problems for the generators. Covering a higher base load would require more power plants. Especially in the winter months, the generation of electricity is only comparatively unecological possible.
An even higher base load than is currently required can by no means be generated by renewable energies. The much-vaunted (but unfortunately anyway faltering) energy transition would then certainly have to be postponed further back.
Solution: Decentralized power generation
Heating with electricity can be very ecological and also very cost-effective when using appropriate technologies (such as infrared heaters). The prerequisite for this, however, is that the base load is not increased but, if possible, reduced.
This can be achieved through decentralized power generation. This means that individual households or smaller settlement areas generate the electricity they need themselves. There are various options available for this:
- photovoltaic systems
- small wind turbines (also available for single-family homes)
- possibly also mini hydroelectric power plants (which do not need dams or concrete riverbeds)
- Stirling engines, where use makes sense
After all, 84% of all Germans would like to see a decentralization of power generation. Whether the big energy companies see it that way is rather questionable.
Decentralized power generation reduces base load and makes power generation much more ecological. Storage and buffering technologies are already available today - but are still expensive. Sol Solar cells (many toxic substances in the production, poor disposability) and wind power plants (massive intervention in the landscape, noise, danger to animals) are completely ecologically not, but many of these problems are quite soluble.
However, without decentralization, heating with electricity is still a very unecological matter.